Test 4_Sample

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Dr. Birkin's major research interest is the development of motor skills in children. It is
most likely that Dr. Birkin is a ________ psychologist.

     A) cognitive
     B) developmental
     C) biological
     D) psychodynamic

2. Babies are born with several reflexes for getting food. One of these is to

     A) withdraw a limb to escape pain.
     B) turn the head away from a cloth placed over the face.
     C) open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.
     D) look longer at facelike images than at a solid disk.

3. Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in
________ of the major developmental milestones.

     A) both the sequence and the age-related timing
     B) the sequence but not the age-related timing
     C) the age-related timing but not the sequence
     D) neither the sequence nor the age-related timing

4. Cognition refers to

     A) an emotional tie linking one person with another.
     B) the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and
     C) any process that facilitates the physical development of the brain.
     D) any process of change that accompanies maturation.

5. Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took
care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a "nurse" illustrates the process of

     A) imprinting.
     B) assimilation.
     C) accommodation.
     D) attachment.

6. If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to

     A) deal with the discipline of toilet training.
     B) see things from the point of view of another person.
     C) recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its
     D) retain earlier schemas when confronted by new experiences.

7. According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to

     A) reason abstractly.
     B) adhere to social norms.
     C) distinguish between good and bad behaviors.
     D) become aware of the positive and negative consequences of their own behaviors.

8. Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others
fail to respond predictably to their infants' demands for food. These different maternal
feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant

     A) autism.
     B) attachment.
     C) conservation.
     D) egocentrism.

9. Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara,
her infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to

     A) form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world.
     B) encounter some difficulty in overcoming the limitation of egocentrism.
     C) encounter some difficulty in forming an attachment to her father.
     D) achieve formal operational intelligence more quickly than the average child.

10. Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they

     A) expect obedience but are responsive to their children's needs.
     B) submit to their children's desires but are unresponsive in times of need.
     C) impose rules and expect obedience.
     D) exert control by setting rules and explaining the reasons for those rules.

11. If warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high
self-esteem, this would most clearly indicate that

     A) authoritative parenting is more effective than authoritarian parenting.
     B) permissive parenting is more effective than authoritative parenting.
     C) children's self-esteem stimulates warmly supportive parenting.
     D) warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated.

12. Learning to delay gratification promotes
     A) maturation.
     B) imprinting.
     C) moral action.
     D) permissive parenting.

13. An elaborate ceremony used to celebrate a person's emergence into adulthood is
an example of a

     A) schema.
     B) critical period.
     C) secure attachment.
     D) rite of passage.

14. Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in

     A) object permanence.
     B) basic trust.
     C) menarche.
     D) memory.

15. When children grow up and leave home, mothers most frequently report feeling

     A) depressed.
     B) bored.
     C) happy.
     D) anxious.

16. Motivation is defined by psychologists as

     A) an impulse to accomplish something of significance.
     B) rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of all people.
     C) a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
     D) the cause of behavior.

17. A need refers to

     A) a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.
     B) anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating behavior.
     C) a desire to perform a behavior in order to avoid punishment.
     D) a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of all people.

18. For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to

     A) lower the set point.
     B) shorten the refractory period.
     C) maintain homeostasis.
     D) reduce blood glucose levels.

19. The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives
includes the need for

     A) self-esteem.
     B) love and friendship.
     C) religious fulfillment.
     D) food and water.

20. The set point is 

     A) the stage of the sexual response cycle that occurs just before orgasm.
     B) the body temperature of a healthy organism, for example, 98.6 degrees
          Fahrenheit in humans.
     C) the point at which energy expenditures from exercise and from metabolism are equal.
     D) the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long
          periods of time.

21. The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to
include ________ than those in countries with colder climates.

     A) spices
     B) carbohydrates
     C) fats
     D) proteins

22. Over the past 50 years, American women have expressed ________ satisfaction
| with their physical appearance and have experienced a(n) ________ incidence of
serious eating disorders.

     A) increasing; decreasing
     B) increasing; increasing
     C) decreasing; decreasing
     D) decreasing; increasing

23. The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high

     A) basal metabolic rate.
     B) body mass index.
     C) set point.
     D) PYY level.

24. John has a BMI of 35 and is desperate to get it down to at least 25. He is trying
a low-sugar, low-carbohydrate diet. John is likely to have difficulty losing weight while
dieting because

     A) fat cells can be lost only with vigorous exercise.
     B) his resting metabolic rate will increase and prompt him to overeat.
     C) he has an unusually low set point for body weight.
     D) fat tissue can be maintained by fewer calories than can other body tissues.

25. Compared with people in the early 1900s, we are eating

      A) a lower-fat, higher-sugar diet.
      B) a lower-sugar, higher-fat diet.
     C) a lower-fat, lower-sugar diet.
     D) a higher-sugar, higher-fat diet.

26. During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely
to experience a rapid decrease in physiological arousal if

     A) they have just experienced orgasm.
     B) they have not used contraceptives.
     C) their refractory period is unusually short.
     D) their sexual interaction has not resulted in conception.

27. Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because

     A) low sex guilt inhibits the careful planning of contraceptive use.
     B) they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods.
     C) sex education courses have actually discouraged contraceptive use.
     D) of all these reasons.

28. A homosexual orientation is

     A) equally likely among members of both sexes.
     B) associated with a lack of clear gender identity.
     C) very persistent and difficult to change.
     D) characteristic of over 10 percent of American males.

29. With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that

     A) sexual activity is largely a medical and biological issue, not a moral issue.
     B) scientific methods prevent sex researchers from being influenced by their own
          personal values.
     C) researchers should not reveal their sexual values because sexual standards are a
          matter of personal taste.
     D) sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of
          sexual values.

30. Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by

     A) chain migration.
     B) drive reduction.
     C) ostracism.
     D) neophobia.

Answer Key     Reference

1. B                      P. 137
2. C                      P. 139
3. C                      P. 141
4. B                      P. 142
5. C                      P. 143
6. C                      P. 144
7. A                      P. 148
8. B                      P. 151
9. A                      P. 152
10. C                    P. 153
11. D                    P. 153/154
12. C                    P. 158
13. D                    P. 162
14. D                    P. 166
15. C                    P. 170
16. C                    P. 339
17. A                    P. 340
18. C                    P. 341
19. D                    P. 342
20. D                    P. 346
21. A                    P. 347
22. D                    P. 348
23. B                    P. 349/350
24. D                    P. 352
25. D                    P. 354
26. A                    P. 357
27. B                    P. 361
28. C                    P. 364
29. D                    P. 368
30. C                    P. 371